Since there is no available vaccine for human protection from WNV infection, appropriate preventive measures should be taken:
1) Against the risk of transmission through mosquito bites
Personal protective measures:
People should be informed about the peak of the mosquito activity hours (from dusk till dawn) so that they avoid being outdoors and use preventive measures during them.
The use of insect repellents (DEET, picaridin, IR3535) is necessary when being outdoors during the evening and in the early morning. Repellents should be applied on uncovered body parts and even on clothes.
Protective clothing (long sleeves, long pants, socks), if possible, is additional effective measure against mosquito biting.
Domestic protective measures:
Screens should be placed on doors and windows to block mosquitoes from entering the house.
Nets should be used especially for the protection of infants.
Elimination of backwater is also necessary. People should empty water from flower pots, bird baths, buckets and cans, get rid of discarded tires that can collect water and favor mosquito growth, and clean clogged rain gutters.
The use of air-conditioner/fan use seems to be helpful as the cold air streams prevents mosquitoes from approaching.
2) Against the risk of animal-to-human transmission
Although it has not been proved that handling sick animals may lead to WNV transmission, CDC recommends people who handle tissues of sick animals or work in slaughtering and culling sections to wear gloves and accompanying protective clothe.
3) Against the risk of transmission through infected blood transfusion and organ transplantation
Laboratory testing should be implemented on samples in affected regions. Polymerase chain reaction (NAT technology) is used for blood units testing.